Chapter 4: Estrogen – The Essence of a Woman

79 Dairy products have higher levels of estrogen than currently recognized: J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Dec 27;54(26):9785-91. Malekinejad H et al.
71 Report of significant early decline in testosterone levels in men: J Endocrinol & Metab. 2007 Jan;92(1)44-45. Travison TG et al.
84 Low levels of estrogen associated with decrease in vascular tone: Ob Gyn News April 15 2005. Wkdman RP. Swan study
84 Low levels of estrogen associated with increase in arterial sclerosis: Fertil Steril. 2004:82:391-7. Mack WY et al.
84 Low levels of estrogen associated with increase incidence of heart attack and stroke: Ann NY Acad Sci. 1990;592:193-203. Stampfer MJ et al.
84 Estrogen replacement associated with decrease of 60% in aortal calcification: NEJM 2007 Jun;356:259-602. Manson JA et al.
84 Reasons women should be focused on maintaining natural estrogen levels: Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1967;99:155-62. Parrish H et al.
84 Estradiol prevents thickening of heart walls: Br Med J. 1989;298:642-4. Witterman J et al.
84 Estradiol prevents heart failure: Basic Res Cardiol. 2006 Jul 4; Beer S et al.
84 Estradiol prevents thickening of heart walls: Nucl Recept Signal. 2006;4:e013. Kim JK et al.
84 Estradiol treatment decreases fibrinogen: Menopause. 2006 Jul-Aug;13(4):643-50. Zegura B et al.
85 Estradiol lowers homocysteine: Menopause. 2001 Jul-Aug:8(4):252-8. Ventura P et al.
85 Estradiol decreases the thickening of the carotid artery walls:Hypertens Res. 2005 Jul;28(7):579-84. Sumino H et al.
85 WHI study causes recommendation to stop supplementing all hormones fail to distinguish between bioidentical and chemicalized estrogens: JAMA. 2002;288:321-333. Women’s Health Initiative (WHI Study) et al.
86 Estradiol alone in the presence of arterial sclerosis will exacerbate this condition: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Dec;91(12):4995-5001. Seli E et al.
86 The medical community started to understand the toxic effect of HRT and the more beneficial affect of natural HRT on the cardiovascular system: Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2007 Jul;5(4):777-89. Koledova VV et al.
86 Cholesterol metabolite 27 hydroxycholesterol inhibit the cardiovascular protection of estrogen: Nat Med. 2007 Sep 16;Umetani M et al.
86 Bioidentical progesterone decreases apatosis and downregulates Fas and Fas expression: Biol Reprod. 2004 Dec;71(6):2065-71. Okuda K et al.; Febs Lett. 2000 Jan 28;466(2-3):279-82. Kuranaga E et al.
86 Bioidentical estradiol applied to skin increases adiponectin:Fertil Steril. 2006 Dec;86(6)1669. Chu MC.
86 Ghrelin causes cravings and increases hunger: Physiol Behav. 2006 Aug 30;89(1):71-84. Cummings DE.
87 Bioidentical estradiol applied to skin decreases ghrelin: Fertil Steril. 2006
Dec;86(6)1669. Micheline CC et al.
87 Bioidentical estradiol increases CCK, satiety, and decreases food intake: Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2006 Jul 29;361(1471):1251-63. Asarian L et al.
87 Decline of estrogen leads to binge-eating: Psychol Med. 2006 Oct 12;:1-11. Edler C et al.
87 Prolonged estradiol treatment increases insulin sensitivity:Mol Endocrinol. 2006 Jun;20(6):1287-99. Gao H et al.
87 Premarin increases body fat and decreases lean body mass:Adv Ther. 2006 Mar-Apr;23(2):263-73. Delibasi T et al.
87 Bioidentical estradiol cream is more effective in managing weight and insulin sensitivity than capsule form: Fertil Steril. 2006 Dec;86(6)1669. Micheline CC et al.
87 Estrogen behaves like an antioxidant: Swiss Med Wkly. 2006 Aug 5;136(31-32):510-4. Delibasi T et al.
87 Estradiol decreases IL-6: Gynecol Obstet Mex. 2006 Mar;74(3): 133-8. Saucedo Garcia R et al.; J HuazhongUniv Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2006;26(1):53-8. Wang Y et al.
87 Estradiol decreases NF-?B: Cytokine. 2005 Aug 21;31(4):251-7. Liu H et al.; J HuazhongUniv Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2006;26(1):53-8. Wang Y et al.
88 Failing to maintain estrogen levels may cause permanent memory loss: J Neuroendocrinol. 2007 Feb;19(2):77-81. Sherwin BB.
89 Estrogen decreases chronic hepatitis fibrosis via antioxidant effect: Braz J Infect Dis. 2007 Jun;11(3):371-4. Codes L et al.
89 Scientific data on the benefits of estrogen beyond reproductive function: Endo Reviews. 2005 26(3):308-312. Wise PM et al.
89 Estrogen improves levels of Acetylcholine: Brain Res. 2000;864(2):263-69. Farr SA et al.
89 Estrogen improves levels of serotonin: Psychopharmacol Bull. 1997;33(2):229-33. Chakravortv SG et al.; Life Sci. 1998;63(3):155-60. Holschneider DP et al.; Endocrinology. 2002 Oct;143(10):3974-83. Temels S et al.
89 Estrogen enhances norepinephrine function: Endocrinology. 2002 Oct;143(10):3974-83. Temel S et al.
89 LH increase as sign of estrogen decline and associated with cognitive decline: Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007 apr 15;269(1-2):107-11. Casadesus G. et al.
89 Estrogen increases executive function and cognitive function:Horm Behav. 2006 Dec 13; Norbury R et al.
89 Estrogen increases verbal memory: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Jun;1052:3-10. Sherwin BB.
89 Estrogen increases cognitive recognition: Women Health. 2006;43(1):37-57. Stephens C et al..
89 Estrogen increases spatial memory: Neurobiol Aging. 2006 Apr 16; Harburger LL et al.; Women Health. 2006;43(1):37-57. Stephens C. et al.
89 Estrogen increases BDNF: Front Neuroendocrinol. 2006 Oct 19; Scharfman HE et al.
90 Estrogen prevents brain grey matter loss: Menopause. 2006 Jul-Aug;13(4):584-91. Boccardi M et al.
90 Estrogen prevents brain white matter loss: Neurobiol Aging. 2006 Oct 6; Ha DM et al.
90 Estrogen protects against Alzheimer’s Disease: Adv Etp Meg Bio. 1997;429:261-71. Chang D et al.; Menopause. 2006 Jul-Aug;13(4):584-91. Boccardi M et al.
90 Estrogen protects against injury from stroke: Trends Neurosci. 2001 Jul;24(7):386-91. Stein DG.
90 Estrogen protects against injury from epilepsy: Neuroscientist. 2007 Feb;13(1):77-88. Veliskova J.
90 Estrogen protects against stress-induced damage to hippocampal calls: Neuroscience. 2007 Feb 21; Takuma K et al.
90 Low levels of estrogen in beginning of woman’s cycle are associated with depression: Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000 Dec;57(12):1157-62. Young EA et al.
90 Women in peri-meopause experience greater incidence of depression: North American Menopause Society 2007. Schmidt PJ et al.
90 Depressed women enter menopause earlier: Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001 June;58(6):529-34. Soares CN et al.
90 Estrogen improves mood, decrease post partum depression and anxiety: Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2007 May;32(4):350-7. Hill MN et al
91 Postpartum depression and psychosis successfully treated with estrogen: J Clin Psychiatry. 2000 Mar;61(3):166-9. Ahokcas A et al.
91 Non-responsive depression successfully treated with estradiol: Arch Gen Psychiatry.. 1997 May;36(5):550-4. Klaiber EL et al.
91 Depressed peri-menopausal women who do not respond to SSRI after administration of estrogen improve their mood: J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63 Suppl 7:45-8. Rasgon NL et al.
91 Estrogen acts as an MOA Inhibitor: Psychopharmacol Bull. 1997;33(2):229-33. Chakravortv SG et al.; Life Sci. 1998;63(3):155-60. Holschneider DP et al.
91 Estrogen improves production of Serotonin and Norepinephrine: Brain Res. 2000;864(2):263-69. Farr SA et al.
92 Bioidentical estrogen has a significant positive effect on panic attacks: Orv Hetil. 2006 May 14;147(19):879-85. Magyar Z et al.; J Affect Disord. 2001 Oct;66(2-3):273-9. McManus K et al.; J Clin Psychiatry. 1995 Nov;56(11):533. Chung CK et al.
94 Migraines are more frequent on days estrogen levels decline:Headache. 2006 Oct;46 Suppl 2:S49-54. Zacur HA.
94 Migraines less frequent on days estrogen levels rise:Neurology. 2006 Sep 13: Macgregor EA et al.; Neurology. 1991 Jun;41(6):786-93. Silberstein SD et al.
94 Migraines less common in pregnancy: CNS Drugs. 2006;20(2):125-41. Ashkenazi A et al.
94 Migraines are more frequent when estrogen levels drop:Headache. 1978;17:250. Ryan et al.
94 Migraines more frequent immediately after delivery:Neurology. 1972;22:355. Somerville et al.; CNS Drugs. 2006;20(2):125-41. Ashkenazi A et al.
94 Relationship between migraines and changing levels of estrogen: Neurology. 2006 Sep 13: Macgregor EA et al.
94 "Menstrual migraines are due to low level of estrogen":Neurology. 1991 Jun;41(6):786-93. Silberstein SD et al.; The Female Patient. 2006 Sept;31 12-20. Rozen T.
95 Bioidentical estrogen causes brighter appearance, rounder, fuller, rosier lips: Proc Biol Sci. 2006 Jan 22;273(1583):135-40. Smith MJ et al.
95 Bioidentical estradiol and estriol cream increases elasticity firmness, decreases wrinkle depth and pore size of the skin: Int J Dermatol. 1996 Sep;35(9):669-74. Schmidt JB et al.; Climacteric. 2007 Aug;10(4):289-97. Verdier-Sevrain S.
95 Estrogen treatment improves visual function: Meno. 2003;10(1)53. Guaschimo S et al.
95 Estrogen treatment prevents intraocular pressure and improves amount/quality of eye lubrication: Ophthalmologica. 2004 Mar-Apr;218(2):120-9. Altintas O et al.
95 Premarin is associated with higher incidents of Dry Eye Syndrome: 
Gynecol Endocrinol. 2006 Sep;22(9):501-5. Uncu G et al
95 Estrogen deficiency is associated with age-related hearing loss: Amer J. Ob/Gyn.2004 Jan;190(1):77-82. Kilicdag EB et al.
95 Estrogen help muscle development and healing rates: J Appl Physiol. 2006 Jun;100(6):2012-23. McClung JM et al.
95 Estrogen decreases incidents of duodenal stress ulcers: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006 Oct5; Shimozawa N et al.
96 Estrogen decrease gastric cancer due to H Pylori bacteria:Carcinogenesis. 2007 Aug 27; Ohtani M et al.
96 Estrogen promotes energy; particularly in women with CFS: J Clin Pathol. 2006 May 26; Grans H et al et al.
97 Protective effects of estriol established more than 35 years ago: Ann Intern Med. 1978 Sep;89(3):422-3. Lemon HM.
97 Estriol restores vaginal integrity: JAMA. 1978 Apr 21;239(16):1638-41. Tzingounis VA et al.; J Med Assoc Thai. 2001 Apr;84(4):539-44. Manonai J et al.
97 Estriol does not promote uterine tissue growth which may decrease the incidence of uterine cancer: Comp Biochem Physiol C. 1990;96(2):241-4. Tamaya T et al.; JAMA. 1978 Apr 21;239(16):1638-41. Tzingounis VA et al.
97 Estriol quickly alleviates night sweats and hot flashes: JAMA. 1978 Apr 21;239(16):1638-41. Tzingounis VA et al.; Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei). 1995 May;55(5):386-91. Yang TS et al.; Maturitas. 2000 Feb 15;34(2):169-77. Takahashi K et al.
97 Estriol has decreases NFkB: J Neuroimmunol. 2002 Mar;124(1-2):106-14. Zang YC et al.
97 Estriol reduce coronay hyperactivity: Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006 Jan;290(1):H295-303. Mishra RG et. al
97 Estriol decreases TNF-a: J Immunol. 2003 Dec 1;171(11):6267-74. Soldan SS et al.
97 Estriol may help build bone: Gynecol Endocrinol. 2003 Dec;17(6):455-61. Yamanaka Y et al
97 UCLA study of bioidentical estriol in the treatment of MS:Neurology. 1999 Apr 12;52(6):1230-8. Kim S et al.; J Immunol. 2003 Dec 1;171(11):6267-74. Soldan SS et al.; Ann Neurol. 2002 Oct;52(4):421-8. Sicotte NL et al.
98 Estrogen beta receptor deficiency may cause interstitial cystitis: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2007 Jun 5;104(23):9806-9. Imamov O et al.; J Endocrinol. 2007 June;193(3):421-33. Treeck O et al.
98 Estriol affects beta receptors that decrease breast tissue proliferation: Endocrinology. 2006 Sep;147(9):4132-50. Zhu BT et al.; Endocrinology. 2007;148(2):538-547. Cvoro A et al.
98 Estriol prevents breast cancer cells from producing new blood vessels and VEGF: Cancer Res. 2006 Dec 1;66(23):11207-13. Hartman J et al.
98 Estriol has anti tumor effect on ovarian cancer cell: J Endo Crinol. 2007 Jun;193(3):421-33. Treeck O et al.
105 Estridol patch delivers unpredictable amounts of estrogen:Fertil Steril. 2003 Mar;79(3):534-42. Kraemer GR et al.
107 Low-dose Estradiol patch provides too little to benefit cognitive function: Arch Neurol. 2006 Jul;63(7):945-50. Yaffe K et al.
107 Intermittent dosing of estrogen impairs cognition: Brain Res. 2006 Oct 18;1115(1):135-47. Gresack JE et al.
108 Studies indicate birth control pills cause decline in cognition:J Nerv Ment Dis. 1999 May;187(5):275-80. Rubino-Watkins MF et al.

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